International Review of Literary Studies <p><strong><span style="background-color: #ffffff; box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); display: inline; float: none; font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 25px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">International Review of Literary Studies (IRLS)</strong> is an International Open Access blind peer-review journal of literary studies that publishes original research articles, review papers, book reviews, and any cutting-edge research informed by Literary and Cultural Theory. IRLS is an independent biannual journal published by MARS Publishers. IRLS provides a rapid process in publishing the submitted manuscripts after a rigorous check at the editors’ desk before the double-blind peer-review process. All articles are accepted/rejected purely on the basis of parameters developed covering aim and scope, original contribution to the field, quality of the content, plagiarism policy, and organization of the content.</span></strong></p> en-US (Muhammad Imran) (Maryam Ahtesham) Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Duality of a Monster: The Human-Wolf Dynamic of the Sympathetic Werewolf in Marie de France’s Bisclavret <p>Throughout her <em>Lays</em>, Marie de France uses animal imagery and metaphor, and her most intriguing use of the motif of the interaction between man and beast comes in her exploration of human-animal transformations. <em>Bisclavret</em>, however, uses a different human-animal transformation, one that would, perhaps, make the lay’s audience question the humanity of the lycanthropic protagonist. Why would Marie de France, in the case of Bisclavret, use a werewolf—normally a monstrous, villainous figure—as the hero of her tale? This essay asserts that Marie uses Bisclavret’s lycanthropy to establish a protagonist that addresses the link between the human and the animal forms of his existence, a character that becomes sympathetic because of that link and the nobility that Bisclavret exhibits in both his human and animal forms. <em>Bisclavret</em> is a story where the human and the animal interact together to show the virtue of an afflicted man; the lycanthropic character is not a mindless monster, but a sympathetic being in either human or animal form. Marie de France breaks the human-animal binary and shows that a man who is also an animal can be a sympathetic and friendly character, changing the discourse of what we define as a bestial monster.</p> Carl B. Sell Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Resistance of the Invisible Mute: Gender Oppression in Franz Kafka’s “A Little Woman” <p>In the works of Franz Kafka (1883-1924), it is certain that the notion of women is never as impressive as the monstrosity of his gigantic bug or the mystery of his artist who fasts endlessly.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> Most of notable works written by Kafka seemingly center on male protagonists with a certain degree of uncanniness. As a scholar specialized in women’s studies, Evelyn Torton Beck highlights the minimal presence of women in Kafka’s works.</p> <p>This essay aims to analyze the invisibility and silence of the female protagonist in “A Little Woman” (1923) in relation to the status of women in Kafka’s modernist world. In this story, the existence of the invisible and voiceless woman conflicts between the audible male narrator. The tension between them demonstrates gendered bias. The depiction of the little woman is made solely under a biased male perspective, which demonstrates how women are oppressed by the opposite sex in the patriarchal context.</p> <p> </p> Chi Sum Garfield Lau Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Book Review:The Water Dancer (Oprah's Book Club): A Novel By Ta-Nehisi Coates <p>The novel Water Dancer by Ta-Nehisi Coates has credible dialogues, the appealing conceits, scientific adjectives, new terminology and a new vocabulary creation for black slaves and the whites. Students of postcolonial and postmodern literature should find this novel a valuable addition in library.&nbsp; In fact, this book offers the possibility of an alternate history, another perspective to look back. With the metaphor of conduction by water, he makes his readers to look at history differently and beyond protest politics. The writer has used the technique of magical realism and the spiritual force of conduction very artfully for the depiction of broken family, of love, and the longing for freedom in this novel. The writer weaves humanity and morality, with a fresh insight, to the history with new terminology as conduction with the effect to revitalize the story above the one we read about in history books, with the thought of knowing already all.</p> Azra Khanam, Noreen Zameer Copyright (c) 2021 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identities in Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis (1915) and In the Penal Colony (1919) <p>My intention is to understand the logic of power and subsequently, of identical questions, in Kafka's <em>Metamorphosis</em> and <em>In the Penal Colony</em>. Ranging from the splitting up of the self to the corporeal violence it undergoes, the logic of identity brings about the idea of fracture. Rather interestingly, Kafka's writing couples organic texture and distanced tone to represent the ego's fissures. Being torn asunder and particularly concerned with paradoxes, he himself was caught between profound despair and a strong will to survive. What is more, his sense of persistent self-devaluation encompasses complex consciousness, which determines identical hybridism and palimpsestic layers of self-definition. In his works, relationships are hierarchical and often vertical. The main point actually resides in the disproportionate conflict between undefined tyrannical authorities and singular beings whose identical landmarks are literally crushed down. In this way, in his short texts, Kafka puts forward his mistrust in mankind and expounds a form of dark pessimism. The notion of irresolution and of impeached identity eventually comes up, foregrounding the abolition of hopes and of humanist illusions. Kafka's stylistic devices consisting in favouring details and metonymies may be assimilated to a magnifying lens through which absurdity is painfully enlightened and through which the individual is shown as completely unarmed.</p> Solenne Lestienne Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Can Subaltern Be Heard: An Analysis of The Kite Runner and The Thousand Splendid Suns by Khalid Hosseini <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the marginalized and the oppressed (subaltern) groups who are made subaltern socially and religiously and to recover the voices of the gender and the afflicted ethnic group. Hosseini’s <em>The Kite Runner</em> and <em>A thousand splendid Suns</em> are brimful with such subalternised characters and they express their dilapidated condition through gestures and their actions. The researcher exploits the theory of Spivak “subaltern theory” in the postcolonial context. In both novels, the oppressor and the oppressed are transformed into the subaltern. Independent life is a dream in a country where stratification is the orders of the day. The article examines how the subaltern individual and the group express their anger and show their reaction against the subaltern-building forces. The subalterns do not lose dignity but celebrate it by joining hands and by sacrifice. Amir repents and sacrifices himself for the new generation. Baba realizes the differences and pays the price. Miriam, the <em>harami</em>, the outcast bastard, suffers constantly from father to husband and sacrifices for Laila and her children by killing the joint-husband. Laila is the voice of a new generation who bravely challenges the subalternity and speaks loudly. The subalterns remain silent. It is its desire to be heard and recognized. Mariam is the subdued voice buy Laila has given voice to the marginalized females. She is the subject and plays the role of the agency and agent who “acts out”. She saves the forthcoming generation and constructs the consciousness of the subaltern.</p> Sohail Ghafoor, Umer Farooq Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Parental Hunger and Alienation in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye <p>The 20th century African Americans, especially the black females, who had neglectful parents, aftereffects of past slavery, were unable to show any kind of belonging to the contemporary American society. They found their souls and minds fettered in the dark dungeon of alienation which means a sense of detachment from the people around as well as from their inner selves. This sense of alienation created in them the feelings of irreparable loss and everlasting despair which is being discussed in this study of Toni Morrison’s fiction. It is an attempt to have deep journey into the alienated and disturbed worlds of the characters that are in constant quest for parental love in Toni Morrison’s first novel <em>The Bluest Eye </em>(1970). It displays the tragic plight of alienated, motherless/fatherless characters by presenting an irreparable loss in their lives because of parental hunger.</p> Dr Shabbir Ahmad, Dr. Fariha Chaudhary, Dr. Ghulam Murtaza Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000