International Review of Literary Studies <p><strong><span style="background-color: #ffffff; box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); display: inline; float: none; font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 25px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">International Review of Literary Studies (IRLS)</strong> is an International blind peer-review journal of literary studies that publishes original research articles, review papers, and book reviews, and cutting-edge research informed by Literary and Cultural Theory. IRLS is an independent quarterly publication by Research Foundation for Humanities. IRLS provides a rapid process in publishing the submitted after a rigorous check at the editors’ desk before the double-blind peer-review process. All articles are accepted/rejected purely on the basis of parameters developed covering aim and scope, paper length, plagiarism policy, and organization of the content.</span></strong></p> MARS Research Forum en-US International Review of Literary Studies 2709-7013 Conceptualising Love: A Reading of Selected African Love Poetry <p>Love is a human emotion. No community can claim monopoly over it. It has been sustaining human existence since beginning. African literature in general and African poetry in particular has not only been presenting it, but has also been exploring its nuances in African context. The aim of the paper is to contextualise the idea of Love at both physical and meta-physical level, as presented in African poetry. It is to argue that when the entire Europe was in comparative darkness, Africans were enjoying and singing about their immediate lived experiences. It is also to argue that African literature is not just about protest and cultural clash. It also deals with as many ubiquitous ideas as other literatures of other cultures. For this, the poems have been selected from both oral and written tradition. The approach adopted to understand the entire concept is that of analysis and comparison. It all leads to the following conclusions: African poetry is rich in terms of presenting various shades of love; it deploys both universal and African symbols to conceptualize love however at times it brings forward the notion of race with respect to black women to counter the hegemonic stereotypes of the West; but most of the times it presents love as an essential human emotion.</p> Dr. Shubhanku Kochar Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 1 13 Mapping Sight and Blindness in the King Lear(s) of William Shakespeare and Roberto Ciulli: Towards a Poly-optic Reading <p>Mapping Sight and Blindness in the <em>King Lear</em> demonstrates the ploy-optic nature of Shakespeare’s <em>King Lear</em>. Pictorial and metaphorical use of images of sight and blindness and their significance are examined. Lear’s blindness is of a psychogenic nature expressing his fear of castration. The multitude of gazes in the play: scopophilic, misandric, gynocentric, phallic and gazes from the margin have allowed us to conceive a new concept called the poly-optic dimension of the text which implies the presence of different perspectives and angles and distorts the idea of a harmonious single gaze.&nbsp; Roberto Ciulli’s adaptation of <em>King Lear</em> is another demonstration of the poly-optic dimension of the Shakespearean text. The concept of the transmigratory nature of the text is introduced and defined. This concept allows Roberto Ciulli to experiment with sight and blindness theatrically and create a stage similar to an optical prism where theatrically blinded characters generate visions loaded with possibilities of interpretations independent from the Shakespearean text even while dealing with the very same theme of sight versus blindness. Reading sight and blindness from the lens of language (images) and (psychoanalysis) gazes and performance criticism allows us to prove the poly-optic nature of <em>King Lear</em>.</p> Zied Ben Amor Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 14 33 Love in the Time of Cholera: An Idealized Criticism of Latin American Patriarchy, Masculinity and Society’s Limits on Heterosexual Love <p>The consequences of patriarchy have been studied and debated across many fields, including sociology, history, politics, psychology, and of course, literature, with many academics making strong arguments for the need to dismantle and replace traditional patriarchal constructs. Literature studies, however, have been limited in their scope of examining how Latin American patriarchy has shaped masculinity, and by extension, love. My paper tackles this topic through a close analysis of Gabriel García Márquez’s novels, with specific focus on <em>Love in the Time of Cholera. </em>“<em>Love in the Time of Cholera</em>: An Idealized Criticism of Latin American Patriarchy, Masculinity and Society’s Limits on Heterosexual Love,” discusses how patriarchal constructs are portrayed in the novel, and the related repercussions on the romantic lives of the characters. I examine how García Márquez weaves a narrative of overly idealized romantic heterosexual love alongside a satirical criticism of the Latin American patriarchy and conventional Latin American masculinity. I present how in doing so, García Márquez challenges readers to read beyond his magical aesthetic to discover greater lessons—namely of the failings of the patriarchy in Latin America, and by extension, the toxic affects it has wrought on romantic love—that can be learned from his enchanting characters.&nbsp;</p> Ashley Allman Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 34 45 Angela Carter’s Nights at The Circus: a Feminist Spatial Journey to Emancipation and Gender Justice. <p>Mobility can be considered as a natural characteristic of human beings, regardless of gender, sex or geographical roots. Within the feminist postmodern context, mobility ushers women in a new world based on gender equality and tolerance. Angela Carter’s <em>Nights at The Circus</em> displays a female character who achieves her New Woman status while traveling from one country to another, as a circus aerialiste. Fevvers’ train journey from London to Siberia, together with her lover, empowers her female being. Space proves to be a substantial prerequisite for the achievement of the human subjectivity whether the female or the masculine one. Carter’s heroine succeeds to overcome the patriarchal misogynist attitude that surrounds her professional career and ends by achieving her female subjectivity. Besides, she triumphs to metamorphose Walser from the traditional male figure who looks to debunk Fevvers ‘claimed bird origin, into the new postmodern man who believes in gender equality and surrenders to Fevvers’love. All along their journey, Fevvers, Walser and other female characters, undergo a deep transformation at the level of their personal growth and subjectivities. They overcome their culturally internalized believes, to be prepared for a life based on equal principles and free from the imposed patriarchal cultural constraints. &nbsp;</p> Wiem Krifa Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 46 61 The Behavior of Viewers towards Women Objectification in Television Advertisements: A case study of Sahiwal city in Pakistan <p>This research aims to see the women’s objectification in TV advertisement and its effects on youth using components from objectification theory. Media, especially television advertisement plays a significant role in promoting women objectification. The sampling is purposive which a nonprobability sampling is. Participants are female students of different universities of Sahiwal, Pakistan. A questionnaire is used to collect the data. The sample size is 306 adult females. The data is collected by personally visiting different universities and distributing the questionnaire among the females. The data is analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Different types of tests like regression and correlation are used to test the hypothesis. The results said that women's objectification leads to mental health risks. One of the Mediators' body shame impacts independent and dependent variables.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong><em>Women Objectification, Body Shame, Drive for thinness, Advertisements</em></p> Maheen Daha Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 62 78 Emphasizing on Socio-Political and Gender Inequality and Oppression in The Context of Mahasweta Devi’s ‘Draupadi’ <p>‘Draupadi’ is a short story written by Mahasweta Devi. Draupadi is a Santhali girl who was protesting against social and gender based oppression and violence with courage and showcasing the patriarchal society’s brutality. Though this story has been translated into English by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak but here we will try to understand the story in both Bengali and English and undoubtedly look at the class and caste based discrimination, oppression, exploitation and torture that ‘Draupadi’ or ‘Dopdi’ faced from social, sexual, regional point of view. This theoretical study focuses on how social and gender based inequality has to face by a backward tribal lady on the perspective of Mahasweta Devi’s ‘Draupadi’.</p> Abir Mondal Copyright (c) 2020 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 2 2 79 90