International Review of Literary Studies <p><strong><span style="background-color: #ffffff; box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); display: inline; float: none; font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 25px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">International Review of Literary Studies (IRLS)</strong> is an International Open Access blind peer-review journal of literary studies that publishes original research articles, review papers, book reviews, and any cutting-edge research informed by Literary and Cultural Theory. IRLS is an independent biannual journal published by MARS Publishers. IRLS provides a rapid process in publishing the submitted manuscripts after a rigorous check at the editors’ desk before the double-blind peer-review process. All articles are accepted/rejected purely on the basis of parameters developed covering aim and scope, original contribution to the field, quality of the content, plagiarism policy, and organization of the content.</span></strong></p> MARS Publishers en-US International Review of Literary Studies 2709-7013 IMPLICIT RAPE AND FEMALE CONSENT IN THOMAS PYNCHON’S V <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Over the years, Thomas Pynchon’s writing has been deemed sexist or misogynistic. Pynchon’s explicit sexual imagery, in particular, has been the topic of much debate. In one of his first famous novels, </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">V.</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Pynchon includes a description of a surgery that seems to have many parallells with and much of the symbolism of such writings, without explicitly calling it rape. As the decision to include undertones of sexual violence have meaning regarding the author’s stance on rape and female consent, there is merit to a comparison between this scene and the many rape or rape-coded scenes in the rest of the novel. With a detailed analysis of the surgery scene as a basepoint, and the other scenes as clues into his stance on rape and female consent, we can contruct an image of any obscured misogyny in Pynchon’s early work.</span></p> Sofie Schrey Copyright (c) 2022 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 4 1 1 8 Between Two Waves: Reconciliation of BDSM and Radical Feminism in Angela Carter’s “The Bloody Chamber” <p>Angela Carter's "The Bloody Chamber" (1979) is now a renowned 20th-Century rendition of a fairy tale, "Bluebeard." Critics such as Kelly Link evaluate this work as a novella dealing with the unruliness and subversive potential of women. However, this novella provoked controversies among feminist scholars, who are Carter's contemporaries, regarding the way it displays subversive and transgressive feminist agency. Anti-pornography feminists criticize the work as a text that reinforces social oppression and sexual objectification of females as "The Bloody Chamber" is encoded with symbols alluding to BDSM and pornography. On the other hand, Robin Ann Sheets asserts that this novella also has an aspect that "moves closer to the anti-pornography feminists" (Sheets 655). This paper aims to read Carter's novella as a work transgressing the boundary of two different feminists waves, which are radical feminism opposing nonnormative sexual practices as well as pornography and pro-sex third-wave feminism that advocates sexual deviations. Through this reading, the paper asserts that this work is Carter's navigation to seek a ground that does not belong to either radical or third-wave feminists. Instead, she suggests an alternative perspective that weaves women's adventurous sexual exploration with the issue of female liberation from the violent patriarchal system. Through this text, Carter evokes the need to realize the sexual and other worldly desires of women, but at the same time, she contends that the glass ceiling of the patriarchal system is yet hindering many women from truly pursuing their desire. Hence, she spotlights the need to break the fetter of patriarchy in advance so as to save women from its violence and abuse through the denouement of the story. To demonstrate the story's relevance to different feminist ideas, it grounds its argument on Robin Ann Sheet's adumbration of feminist history and it also refers to the theory of Gayle Rubin when it comes to demonstrating the story's relevance to nonnormative sexual practices.&nbsp;</p> Junsu Hong Copyright (c) 2022 International Review of Literary Studies 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 4 1 9 17 Into the Darkest Corner: A Literary Feminist Examination in the Light of Authoritative Intervention <h2>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract</h2> <p>This paper provides an investigation of Elizabeth Haynes’ novel <em>Into the Darkest Corner</em>. The paper focuses on exploring the impact of ‘authoritative intervention’ in cases of intimate partner violence. In this regard, authoritative intervention is taken into consideration amongst other resistance factors that enabled the protagonist to counteract against her perpetrator. Research gaps do exist regarding the impact of authoritative intervention on abused women’s decision to leave a violent relationship; hence the necessity of this research is stressed. The discussion and analysis are carried out from a feminist psychoanalytic perspective in order to examine the emotional awakening process that led the protagonist to develop a ‘voice’ and demand her freedom from her violent husband. The struggle of the protagonist to put an end to her abusive marriage in the light of the resistance factors that she has are the focal point of this paper. Authoritative intervention is to be highlighted amongst other resistance factors, a task that has not been addressed in the available literature on domestic violence in relation to feminist and psychoanalytic criticism up to date.</p> Dr. Reem Atiyat Raid Khassawneh Copyright (c) 2022 International Review of Literary Studies 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 4 1 18 30 “Out of them all, you’ll be the only one to survive:” Hybrid “I”, Hybrid Text in I Tituba, Black Witch of Salem <p>This article tackles the dogmatic riddle put forth in the challenging and assertive title <em>I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem</em>. The interchangeability of the self-assured “I” and oft-voiceless “Black” distorts the authority of normative discourses and topples the complacent portrayals of the silenced Black and the domineering White. The blurring of demarcating lines between visible/invisible, self/Other, Black/White marks the hybridized identity that Tituba discloses. The Other, therefore, emerges as a locus around which the entanglement of subjugation and empowerment, subjection and abjection is woven. Indeed, this paper follows the process of constructing and re-constructing Tituba’s identity while concomitantly relocating it in the complex realm of hybridity. In consolidating a wide array of voices into a single and personal narrative, the novel reveals an ambivalent “I” that subtly wavers between self-assertion and erasure as the ex-slave is found enmeshed in intricate web of racial and gendered cultures. The hybridity of Tituba(s)’ identity is to be tackled not only through her ability to defy heteroglossia and create her own voice, transcending the fixity and artificiality of monologic accounts but also through the hybridized text itself.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Hayfa Mohdhi Copyright (c) 2022 International Review of Literary Studies 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 4 1 31 39 Guilty Nature in Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra: A Review Essay <p><em>The specific review is undertaking the examining the personality about responsibility in Neill’s Grieving Becomes legendary being, that is by all accounts partner unavoidable tormenting portions of the stylish man. So, responsibility could be a preventive hindrance, that continues to jab and subvert gifts by helpful Past. Feeling of culpability may bring about sadness, seclusion and vengeance, affectation, and conceit. This review offers a clear scenario of a universe about the qualification, duplicity, paired resistance; emotion of love and disdain, absolution or vengeance, dedication, and unfaithfulness. Because he showed homies as the focal point of consideration during this drama; scientists need and present homies in light of the fact that they essential consider shaping a person’s disposition. During this play, the past doesn’t turn into a past anyway and continues to move as a circular person until the finish of the story.</em></p> Anosha Islam Samona Mumtaz Ume-Kalsoom Ammara Gul Copyright (c) 2022 International Review of Literary Studies 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 4 1 40 44