Can Subaltern Be Heard: An Analysis of The Kite Runner and The Thousand Splendid Suns by Khalid Hosseini

Can Subaltern Be Heard

Authors

  • Sohail Ghafoor Govt. Elementary school. 21/EB Arifwala
  • Umer Farooq Department of English, The University of Sargodha

Keywords:

Subaltern,, Spivak,, agency,, Marginalized, Voice

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the marginalized and the oppressed (subaltern) groups who are made subaltern socially and religiously and to recover the voices of the gender and the afflicted ethnic group.  Hosseini’s The Kite Runner and A thousand splendid Suns are brimful with such subalternised characters and they express their dilapidated condition through gestures and their actions. The researcher exploits the theory of Spivak “subaltern theory” in the postcolonial context. In both novels, the oppressor and the oppressed are transformed into the subaltern. Independent life is a dream in a country where stratification is the orders of the day.  The article examines how the subaltern individual and the group express their anger and show their reaction against the subaltern-building forces. The subalterns do not lose dignity but celebrate it by joining hands and by sacrifice.  Amir repents and sacrifices himself for the new generation. Baba realizes the differences and pays the price. Miriam, the harami, the outcast bastard, suffers constantly from father to husband and sacrifices for Laila and her children by killing the joint-husband. Laila is the voice of a new generation who bravely challenges the subalternity and speaks loudly. The subalterns remain silent. It is its desire to be heard and recognized. Mariam is the subdued voice buy Laila has given voice to the marginalized females. She is the subject and plays the role of the agency and agent who “acts out”. She saves the forthcoming generation and constructs the consciousness of the subaltern.

References

Antonio, Gramsci. Selection From the Prison Notebooks. Edited and Translated by Quintin. 1971

Ashcroft, Bill,Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin. Post-colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge. London and New York. 2001. Second edition.

Booth, Laura.Matriarchy v/s Matriarchy. www.wikipedia.

Chakraborty, Spivak. Can Subaltern Speak? “ A Literary Representation of the Subaltern, A Woman’s Text from the Third World.’’ Essay in Cultural Politics. New York. Methuen. 1987.

Fisher, Michael H. "Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial. Edited and introduced by VINAYAK CHATURVEDI. London and New York: Verso, 2000. xix, 364 pp. $20.00." The Journal of Asian Studies 60.2 (2001): 582-583.

Gale, Thomas. International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. Macmallian Pulisher. 2008.

Hosseini, Khalid. The Kite Runner. Riverhead Books. New York. 2003.

Imran, Muhammad, et al. "Veiled courage: Inside the women’s resistance against violence through their writings." Asian Journal of Women's Studies 26.1 (2020): 74-93.

Imran, Muhammad., and Hart, Jonathan Locke. (2019). Embroidering within boundaries: Afghan women creating a future. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 46.2 (2019): 335– 337. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2018.1549003.

Joyia, Muhammad Imran, and Ammara Gull. "Courageous Women: A Study of Resilience of Women in Khaled Hosseini’s Novel A Thousand Splendid Suns." Language in India 17.1 (2017).

Marienna, Bergesson. From the Epic of Gilgamesh Till Today.2005.

Rebecc, Stuhr. Reading Khalid Hosseini. Greenwood Press, London. 2009.

Saib Tabirizi. (Encyclopedia Irania). 1960.

Stuhr, Rebecca. Reading Khaled Hosseini. Macmillan, 2009.

Downloads

Published

2020-11-22

How to Cite

Ghafoor, S., & Farooq, U. . (2020). Can Subaltern Be Heard: An Analysis of The Kite Runner and The Thousand Splendid Suns by Khalid Hosseini: Can Subaltern Be Heard. International Review of Literary Studies, 2(1), 42-56. Retrieved from https://irlsjournal.com/ojs/index.php/irls/article/view/10